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DinosaurTheory gives the solution to the paradox of how the dinosaurs and pterosaurs grew so large. Solving the large dinosaur paradox is an important scientific achievement and yet DinosaurTheory is much more than just a discussion about dinosaurs. This is because the large dinosaur paradox has existed for centuries so that now it is entangled with numerous other science incongruities and misconceptions and this has caused considerable confusion. All of this confusion needs to be sorted out so that science can move forward.

In explaining the solution to how the dinosaurs and pterosaurs grew so large, DinosaurTheory is actually a series of incredibly wonderful and scientifically correct solutions to numerous scientific paradoxes. Consider the fact that most people are unsure if size matters and so they are confused on whether the evidence of the exceptionally large terrestrial animals of the Mesozoic era is indeed a scientific paradox. Can objects be any arbitrary size? Understanding how size matters is actually one of the most fundamental concepts in all of science, but science teachers rarely teach this concept correctly and in turn scientists and engineers make countless mistakes as a consequence of the confusion brought on by the large dinosaur paradox. To give another example, what are the requirements for flight that show why it is illogical to believe that the large pterosaurs could have flown in an atmosphere similar to our present atmosphere? DinosaurTheory brings clarity to the flying pterosaur paradox by exploring the general requirements for all types of flight that includes both flying animals and airplanes. For a third example, when we consider that many millions of years ago the Earth's atmosphere may have been different, we should also wonder why Earth's present atmosphere - mostly nitrogen and oxygen - is so different from the atmospheres of all the other planets? Yet once we have the correct understanding of how planets evolve, the differences among the planets are no longer baffling but rather they make perfect sense. Each one of the solutions to these science paradoxes is an extremely significant scientific breakthrough, and yet within DinosaurTheory there is still much more.

DinosaurTheory is revolutionary science. This means that among the many great historical achievements of science there were a few things that the scientists missed. Scientists clearly took a wrong turn when they ignored Galileo's writings showing the importance of size. Yet some people are uncomfortable with the idea that science experts can make mistakes. Often times they do not even look at the evidence. Instead of recognizing the achievements of DinosaurTheory they wonder how can the scientists supporting conflicting ideas be wrong. These scientists' unwillingness to admit to their mistakes is not helpful to the advancement of science.

Real science is not a popularity contest; instead it is about discovering the truth about our reality. The truth is not always popular. How many centuries did it take for mankind to accept the fact that Earth is not the center of the universe, and how many more decades or centuries will it be before mankind accepts the overwhelming evidence supporting the Theory of Evolution?

Many people treat science as if it is a religion; to be a member of the club a person must accept all beliefs as dogma. However unlike religion, in science there needs to be evidence backing up every belief, and yet there are many people within science today that fail to see the importance of this. Instead of presenting evidence, they make statements claiming that most scientists hold a certain belief. That is not science. Real science is not a religion and it does not advance through the support of unquestioning followers.

So what is science? Science is the unbiased intelligent effort to understand our reality based on the physical evidence.

We do not know why our reality exists, we struggle in defining what is life, we do not know how the laws of physics came to be, or who set the values of the physical constants, but there is one thing we are certain: our reality is rational. Einstein is quoted as saying that the most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible. So let's do our best to use our minds to figure this out. For those who are intelligent, imaginative, and curious our reality is a playground for the mind.

Thank you for having an interest in science.

David Esker
M.S. Physics
Author of DinosaurTheory

Chapter Summaries

1. Galileo’s Square-Cube Law: Galileo’s Square-Cube Law shows that it is impossible to change the size of an object without changing the properties of the object. It is impossible to maintain the proportionality of all the object’s properties because the ratio of an object’s area to its volume decreases with the greater size of an object. This simple scientific concept has far reaching consequences that are extremely important to nearly every science discipline. This chapter explains Galileo’s Square-Cube Law and how the area to volume ratio restricts the variation in size of the more complex objects.

2. The Dinosaur Paradox: Once we understand Galileo’s Square-Cube Law showing how size matters it becomes clear that the large dinosaurs and pterosaurs of the Mesozoic era present a scientific paradox. Four areas of scientific incongruities regarding these animals’ large size are identified: 1) insufficient muscle strength, 2) insufficient bone strength, 3) unacceptably high blood pressure within the tallest dinosaurs, and 4) the paradox of pterosaurs having grossly insufficient power to fly in atmospheric conditions similar to the present. This chapter explains the first three paradoxes concerning the large dinosaurs while the following chapter explains the paradox regarding the large flying pterosaurs.

3. The Science of Flight and the Paradox of Flying Pterosaurs: There is a huge difference between getting something to work and having a correct theoretical understanding of how it works. By testing wing profiles in their wind tunnel and then test flying gliders, the Wright brothers were successful in building the first real airplane; yet nevertheless, the Wright brothers never actually figured out how wings generate lift. A century later we have supersonic jets, and yet the aviation industry still cannot explain how wings generate lift. The most common explanation of lift makes the bogus claim that the air must travel either above or below the wing in the same amount of time. This statement is wrong, and most people within the aviation industry are aware of this. Yet they would rather present an incorrect explanation than suffer the embarrassment of admitting that they cannot explain how an airplane flies. The fact is that the development of airplanes has always been more of an art than a science. The absence of a theoretical understanding of flight becomes most apparent when the paleontologists make their foolish attempts trying to explain how the giant pterosaurs flew. Common sense tells everyone that a reptile the size of a horse should not be capable of flight, but until now there has not been a theoretical understanding of flight enabling us to scientifically clarify what is wrong with the paleontologists’ claim that there is nothing odd about gigantic flying reptiles.

In this chapter, I derive the Power for Flight Equations so as to clarify why large pterosaurs could not have flown in an atmospheric environment similar to the present. These equations, and the concepts incorporated in their derivation, are applicable to all airplanes, birds, and all other medium to large flying objects.

4. The Search for a Rational Solution: Acknowledging the existence of these scientific paradoxes, a systematic investigation is conducted to find the solution. The first step is to determine a scaling factor between the size of the largest and tallest animals of today and the largest and tallest animals of the peak of dinosaur gigantism. The next step investigates how the Earth’s gravitational field could have been less during the Mesozoic so as to allow this gigantism. Each possible hypothesis is systematically investigated in regards to scientific principles and physical evidence. This pattern goes on until the presentation of the last possible hypothesis: that the Earth had an extremely thick atmosphere that provided a buoyancy force that reduced the effective weight of the dinosaurs. This proves to be the correct solution.

5. The Thick Atmosphere Solution: The Thick Atmosphere Solution’s ability to solve the dinosaur paradox qualifies it as being a strong hypothesis, but with additional evidence it can be shown that the Thick Atmosphere Solution is actually a new scientific theory. For a conceptual model to achieve the status of being a scientific theory there needs to be 1) multiple distinct evidence-supported arguments all leading to the same conclusion, and 2) the conceptual model must show itself to be invaluable in providing the ‘big picture’ that allows us to make sense of the numerous miscellaneous surrounding facts that were previously a mystery. Each of the remaining chapters presents an evidence-supported argument that leads to the conclusion that the Earth has had an extremely thick atmosphere throughout most of its existence. This chapter starts by addressing a few misconceptions regarding fluids that may have confused some people regarding animals living in a high pressure atmosphere. The chapter then finishes strong by showing how the Thick Atmosphere Theory solves the long-standing paleoclimatologist puzzle of how the Mesozoic era Earth had the same pleasant climate over its entire surface.

6. Biology Revolution: Sometimes we fail to notice unusual facts that should drive our scientific curiosity. Besides the paradox of the dinosaurs being so large there is also the paradox of why dinosaurs have a distinctly different shape from the large terrestrial animals of today. This chapter emphasizes the application of physics and the Theory of Evolution for the understanding of biology. Specifically it points out how species evolve so as to fill available niches within their physical and biological environment. The reason dinosaurs had disproportionally larger rear legs and a powerful flexible tail is because these appendages best facilitated terrestrial animals attempting to move quickly through a thick fluid that is about 2/3’s of the density of the animal.

7. Hell, Heaven and Earth – The Earth’s Internal Heat: For the Thick Atmosphere Theory to be a complete theory there needs to an explanation and supporting evidence showing how this extremely thick atmosphere came into existence and why the present atmosphere is considerably thinner. This requires the development of a supporting theory explaining the source of the fluids that now surrounds the Earth: a theory on the origin of the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere. The fact that these fluids came from the interior of the Earth will become clear in later chapters but for now the focus is on how the interior heat is generated so as to drive these fluids to the surface. The quantity of exhausted volcanic gasses that later evolves into being the atmosphere is largely determined by how much heat is generated inside the Earth. This chapter, the first of the three chapter series, investigates hypotheses regarding the source of the Earth’s interior heat. The investigation leads to the hypothesis that tidal forces are the source of the Earth’s internal heat.

8. Hell, Heaven and Earth – Our Solar System: Historically mankind first sought answers about the Earth while it was only recently that scientists had enough data about the planets to theorize about the solar system. This stacking of theories – first the Earth, then the solar system – impedes our ability to reach the correct understanding. To understand the Earth we need to first view it as just another planet in our solar system. After seeing how our solar system evolved we will then understand how our Earth is special.

This chapter presents the evidence showing that gravitational tidal heating is the primary mechanism for heating not just the Earth but all the planets and moons of our solar system. Each planet or moon evolves as a result of this internal heating such that now that it is 4.6 billion years since the solar system’s formation each planet or moon is either in a stage of its evolution or it has completed its evolution. The author’s theory on planetary development based on tidal heating shows how the application of physics principles enables us to understand our solar system.

9. Hell, Heaven and Earth - The Blue Planet: The author’s theory on planetary development leads the conclusion that the largest terrestrial planet Earth should have the thickest atmosphere and that this atmosphere should be like the atmospheres of Venus and Mars in being primary carbon dioxide. Initially the Earth did have the thickest atmosphere and this atmosphere was primary carbon dioxide. But then life evolved on Earth and this set off a chain of events that led to the atmosphere that we have today. Because of the water on the Earth’s surface and life that evolved in this water, carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere until now nitrogen is the primary component of the Earth’s atmosphere. In support of this position, the Earth is literally covered with mountains of rock solid evidence: the sedimentary carbonate rocks limestone and dolomite that lock up the carbon dioxide that once filled the Earth’s atmosphere.

10. Rocks and Fossils: Over the last couple of hundred of years our understanding of the Earth has advanced considerable as a result of the hard work of numerous dedicated geologists; yet we are still a long ways from having a complete picture of how the Earth evolved. The Thick Atmosphere Theory provides an important advancement in understanding much of the gathered geological evidence. The global paleoclimate, glaciations, sea level changes and other physical events of the last half a billion years can now be placed in their proper context based on whether it was a thick or a thin atmosphere environment.

11. Dinosaurs and Dragonflies: The biological changes that occurred through time are even more interesting than the physical changes. Combining the geological record of mass extinctions, knowledge of when the atmosphere was thick or thin, and applying our understanding of how species evolve produces remarkable insight regarding the major biological events that occurred on this Earth.

12. Spaceship Earth: In the process of greatly increasing our understanding of how the Earth evolved we gain a greater respect for our home. Hopefully mankind will become more thoughtful in considering how our actions affect the health of our planet. Just as centuries ago Galileo gave us a new perspective of the heavens, the Thick Atmosphere Theory forces us to reconsider our beliefs regarding life, who we are, and what we aspire to be.

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Square-Cube Law / Dinosaur Paradox / Science of Flight / Search for the Solution
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