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External Links / References & Book Recommendations

Chapter 1: Square-Cube Law

Physics of Size

Strength of Materials

Physics, Biology, and Scaling Properties

Scaling Properties and their Application to Biology

Size of Biological Cells

Surface Area to Volume Ratio

Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer in Regards to Mammals

Fundamental Forces of Nature

Scaling Properties Aplied to Nanoscience


Chapter 2: Dinosaur Paradox

The Problems with Big Dinosaurs

Brachiosaurus and other Sauropods

Body Density of Vertebrates

Respiratory System of Birds

Classification of Dinosaurs

Mass of Dinosaurs Compared to Elephants and Whales

Determining the Weight of Dinosaurs from Models

Relative Strength

Horses Breaking Their Legs

The Blood Pressure Problem

Blood Pressure and the Human Cardiovascular System


Proposed Solutions to the Brachiosaur Blood Pressure Problem

Chapter 3: The Science of Flight and the Paradox of Flying Pterosaurs


MacCready's Attempt to Show that Pterosaurs Could Fly

How Wings Generate Lift

Science of Flight

Drag Coefficient

Data on Airplanes

Newton's Laws: F = m a

Fluid Dynamics

Spruce Goose

Wright Flyer

Human Powered Flight

Science of Flight Applied to Birds

Animal Power

Adenosine Triphosphate ATP

Largest Flying Birds

Bird Respiration and Thermoregulation



'Flying' Reptiles


Chapter 4: Solution to the Dinosaur Paradox

Scientific Critical Thinking

The Role of Mathematics in Science

Dominate Species